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Trans people have existed for millennia, but western culture has until recently proved to be a barrier to trans people being open about their identities.

With improved understanding of gender identities and better access to medical support more trans people are feeling able to come out about their gender identity.

This has encourage society to become more accepting of trans people with protections in law against discrimination in education, employment and the provision of services for those with the protected characteristic of Gender- Reassignment.

UK Equality Act 2010  Gender reassignment

A person has the protected characteristic of gender reassignment if the person is proposing to undergo, is undergoing or has undergone a process (or part of a process) for the purpose of reassigning the person’s sex by changing physiological or other attributes of sex.  

Since trans people became of interest to the medical profession there has been a discussion as to the cause of non-conformant gender identities. This has come to be known as the Nature / Nurture debate.


Many physical and psychological studies have been carried out with the general consensus being that biological factors have an influence on gender identity with help or hindrance in the form of socialisation. Studies have found that parts of the brain structure and processes align with an individuals internal sense of gender identity and not to their sex as determined at birth.


https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20032-transsexual-differences-caught-on-brain-scan/

or another view

http://transcience-project.org/brain_sex.html